In 1923 the Gentile Reform was introduced, which changed the educational system majorly. Giovanni Gentile was appointed Minister of Education, and he received some criticism from fascists for not being fascist enough. His reforms followed a very elitist and academic approach, introducing tough national examinations. He also was a supporter of freedom for the universities […]

The ‘Battle for grain’ was launched with the intention of providing Italy with vast quantities of grain to sustain their, in theory, exponentially increasing population. On paper, this was successful – grain did increase in a decade by about 50%, and this looked to be an achievement of the fascist regime. However, there were also […]

When Mussolini offered to open negotiations with the Catholic Church, there were a variety of reasons for why the church should be in favour of an agreement. The main reason may have been because it was clear by 1926 that Mussolini’s regime was going to last, and so the Church wished to protect its position […]

There were many reasons why Mussolini and the Catholic Church should have a strained relationship; from Mussolini’s perspective the Church was a major obstacle in achieving his goal of a totalitarian Fascist state. From the Churches perspective, fascism and Mussolini looked like an impious threat which could threaten the entire social order. Regardless of their […]

For Mussolini, the key area of propaganda to focus on was his personal image. ‘Mussolini is always right’ was part of the Fascist Decalogue taught in secondary schools, and he wanted people to believe this god-like status which he was creating for himself. The photos of Il Duce (Mussolini’s title) varied from piloting aeroplanes to […]

Mussolini dreamed of turning Italians into fascists, and to do this he tried to harness a mechanism which proved to be unbelievably successful in Nazi Germany half a decade later; Propaganda. Unlike in Nazi Germany, fascist Ideology was very confused, complex and at times contradictory. With a wide spectrum of supporters from conservatives to radical […]

Mussolini was helped by the fact that he took over power just before a period of international financial stability.  The economic success strengthened his position as Prime Minister, and although it had almost nothing to do with the fascist regime, Mussolini was more than happy to accept credit for it. Mussolini also consolidated his power […]